The Arab opposition to Zionism is marked from the beginning of the British mandate on Palestine with many riots and massacres and an Arab rebellion between 1936 and 1939. After the Second World War, the Jews also revolted. Unable to manage the situation, the British forwarded the case to the United Nations, which in late 1947 voted to partition Palestine. As a result, a civil war broke out, which was followed by the first Arab-Israeli war six months later.
The region witnessed the exodus of Palestinian Arabs during this war, the arrival in Israel of Jewish refugees from Arab countries between 1948 and 1952, then a new exodus from the West Bank to Jordan during the Six Day War. The events also led to the arrival in Israel of nearly 600,000 Jews from Arab countries. Population movements have led to the problem of Palestinian refugees, nearly 5 million today who have not been integrated by their host countries.
Since the rejection of the partition plan, the United Nations has so far issued nearly a hundred resolutions via the Security Council and the General Assembly. The resolutions were aimed at resolving the conflict. Several negotiations and peace conferences have also taken place.
The conflict developed over several distinct periods: From 1948 to 1967, the territory of Mandatory Palestine was administered largely by Israel, founded in 1948, with the Gaza Strip coming under the control of Egypt and the West Bank being occupied and then annexed in 1950 by Jordan. From 1967 to 1993, the outcome of the Six-Day War brought the West Bank and Gaza populations under Israeli administration. Palestinian national sentiment is expressed by the voice of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
From 1993 to 2000, the Oslo process led to the recognition of the State of Israel by the PLO and the establishment of a Palestinian Interim Authority. From 2000 to 2005, the Second Intifada marked the blockage of the Is-raeli-Palestinian peace process. The Gaza Strip, from which Israel withdrew in 2005 is led by Hamas, which took control by force in June 2007. Since 2006, the Gaza Strip has been blockaded by Israel.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict refers to the conflict between Palestinians and Israelis in the Middle East. It opposes two nationalisms (Jewish nationalism and Palestinian Arab nationalism) and includes an important religious dimension, especially since Israel is a Jewish state with a Jewish majority and Palestinians are predominantly Muslim.
Before 1917, the region was under the authority of the Ottoman Empire. The Christian and Muslim populations who lived there were defined in terms of religious communities rather than nationality. The Jewish population was divided into two communities: the ancient Yishuv, that is, the long-established community in this territory, and the new Yishuv, made up of Jews who have been settled for a few decades at most, mainly motivated by Zionism.
In 1917, the British conquered Palestine, which they administered officially from 1920 under a mandate of the League of Nations. The conflict between Yishuv and the Arabs of Palestine began mainly since the Balfour Declaration of 1917. From 1920 to 1948, the United Kingdom exercised its mandate on Mandatory Palestine. Conflicts erupted between Arabs and Jews, but also between these populations and the British authorities.
The roots of the conflict lie in the global context of exacerbating European nationalism and weakening of the Ottoman Empire in the progressive opposition of the objectives of Zionism in Europe and Arab nationalism in the Middle East.
The Zionist World Organization was founded in 1897 in Basel, where the Zionist movement held its first congress and elected Theodor Herzl as its leader. The mission she gives herself is to prepare for the Jewish people a home in Palestine, a historic region of the Land of Israel. For this, the World Zionist Organization is buying land and promoting immigration.
At the same time, the first big waves of Jewish immigration began and accelerated with the new pogroms, especially those of Kishinev that bring tens of thousands of immigrants from Eastern Europe to Palestine. At the same time, in 1908, the first Arab nationalist newspapers Al-Karmel and Falistin were founded.
At the end of the Ottoman period, the Jewish population is estimated between 56,000 and 82,000 people and the Arab population (Muslim, Jewish, Christian and others) to more than 600,000 people.